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20th International Conference on Environmental Toxicology and Ecological Risk Assessment, will be organized around the theme “Health Hazards due to the toxicants and Recovery of Ecosystem From Disruptions”
ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY 2021 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY 2021
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Toxicology is a variance of biology, chemistry, and medicine bothered with the study of the inauspicious reactions of chemicals on living organisms. It also studies the detrimental effects of chemical, biological and physical agents in biological systems that establish the extent of harm in living organisms. They develop methods to work out harmful effects, the dosages that cause those effects, and safe exposure limits. Toxicological analysis plays a very critical role in the modern-day investigations. A toxicologist is a scientist who is absolute in the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of venoms and toxins; mainly the poisoning of people.
Environmental toxicology is a interdisciplinary field of science bothered with the study of the harmful effects of various chemical, biological and physical agents on living organisms Ecotoxicology is a sub discipline of environmental toxicology bothered with studying the harmful effects of toxicants at the population and ecosystem levels. Organisms can be exposed to distinct kinds of toxicants at any life cycle stage, some of which are more sensitive than others. Toxicity also can vary with the organism's placement within its food cycle. Bioaccumulation occurs when an organism cache toxicants in fatty tissues, which may eventually establish a trophic cascade and the bio magnification of specific toxicants The result of a chemical or other substance at various applications on various species.
The clinical effects of environmental toxicants on living organisms through collecting and evaluating and identifying the scientific data and the ways of recognition and diagnosis. Human and health toxicology explains about the adverse effects caused to the body by xenobiotic substances. Xenobiotic substance contains a huge range of disciplines such as Organ systems toxicity, lung toxicology etc,.
Various pharmaceutical drugs which effect drastic poisonings, emergencies such as accidental poisonings, suicidal attempts. are studied under human toxicology. Several analytical toxicological principles are implemented in this Techniques like gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, thin layer chromatography different kinds of extractions are employed for these studies. Health Toxicology deals with the identification of potential health hazards related to the exposure to different chemicals and biological agents, their identification, assessment and steps to curtail them. It’s the toxicological science which deals with the structure function relationship, human and health ways of the chemicals such as PCBs etc. Other draw up elements in human nutrition and health are also evaluated.
Global warming is that the temperature of surface, oceans and atmosphere rising over tens to thousands of years. Global warming is awaited to be a far-reaching, long-lasting and in several cases, devastating consequences for planet Earth. Global, the moderate heat of Earth's surface, oceans and atmosphere, is caused by human undertaking, primarily the burning of fossil fuels that pump carbon dioxide (CO2), methane and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Already, heating has a measurable effect on the earth. The average surface temperature of Earth is maintained by a balance of varied sorts of solar and terrestrial radiation. Animals are changing relocation patterns and plants are changing the dates of activity, like trees budding their leaves earlier within the spring and dropping them later within the fall, Josef Warne, a professor of geology and environmental science at the University of Pittsburgh, told Live Science..
Organic pollutants include numerous insecticides and herbicides that have been used in agriculture and pest control. Di-chloride-Di-phenol-polyurethane (DDT) is a pesticide, highly effective in controlling mosquito .Organic pollutants is a biodegradable contaminants in an environment.
Inorganic components are things found naturally but because of human production of goods have been altered to drastically increase the amount of them in the environment. Inorganic compounds comprise most of the crust, although the compositions of the deep mantle remain active areas of investigation.
Pesticides are substances which are meant for controlling pests. Pesticides are classified on the basis of biological mechanism function or application method. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides (which may include insect growth regulators, termiticide ,etc.) nematicide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, rodenticide, bactericide, insect repellent , animal repellent and fungicide Pesticides also plays a crucial role as a substance that is used to modify a plant's growth (regulator), drop a plant's leaves prematurely (defoliant), or act as a drying agent (desiccant).
Biological agents mainly includes bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their correlated toxins .biological agents have a ubiquitous presence in the environment and are found in many sectors. Biological agents can cause a wide range of adverse health effects ,which include :infections caused by parasites, viruses, fungi or bacteria; allergies, and as well as chronic respiratory symptoms activated by exposure to mould and organic dusts like flour dust, animal dander, enzymes and mites. Biological agents mainly include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their correlated toxins. They have an ability to effect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild, allergic reactions to serious medical conditions even death
Pharmacology is the structured study of drug actions on biological systems. It is the study of the interactions between an active organism and drugs. Suppose substances are having therapeutic properties, they are studied as drugs. Pharmacology deals with the study of drugs. In detail, it mainly studies with the properties of drugs, their action, interactions between drug particles and their target sites, the mechanisms by which they elicit pharmacological action. Pharmacological studies range from the effects of chemical agents upon subcellular mechanisms, to those that deal with the potential hazards of pesticides and herbicides, to those that focus on the treatment of major diseases by drug therapy
Toxicology is the study of death-dealing and harmful substances. Toxicity examining permits us to identify the toxicity of chemicals we use and gives information about the potency of their effects. As well as being faithful for industrial chemicals this is also faith of pharmaceuticals and the natural products formed by plants, bacteria and fungi. Signifying anyhow a chemical can cause cancer, allergic reactions or abnormalities in unborn children is important to human health, and the process of discovering this information is known as assessment of hazard. This process is different from assessing risk which controls whether it is likely to actually cause problem in a given situation.
Medical toxicology is a confine of medicine concentrating on toxicology and providing the diagnosis, management, and prevention of poisoning and other adverse effects due to medications, occupational and environmental toxicants, and biological agents. Medical toxicologists are tangled in the evaluation and treatment of a wide variety of problems, including acute or chronic poisoning, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), drug overdoses, envenomation, substance abuse, industrial accidents, and other chemical exposures. Medical toxicology is formally recognized as a medical confine by the American Board of Medical Specialties. Its professionals are physicians, whose main specialization is generally in emergency medicine, occupational medicine, or Pediatrics. Medical toxicology is intimately related to clinical toxicology, with the final discipline encompassing non-physicians as well (generally pharmacists or scientists).
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic sequel of certain metals in definite forms and doses on life. Few metals are toxic when they form harmful soluble compounds. Précised metals have no biological role, like not essential minerals, or are toxic when in a certain form. In this instance of lead, any measurable amount shall have negative health effects. Often heavy metals are thought as synonymous, but lighter metals may also be toxic in certain situations ,such as beryllium and lithium. Most essentially, iron is toxic heavy metal.
Computational toxicology is a systematic approach that can model a contaminant's effect on gene expression; that is, how the contaminant exposure will affect cellular behavior and signalling, including protein synthesis i.e., proteomics and metabolic changes can be looked in applications of metabolites in tissues and bio fluids i.e., metabolomics. These advances were impossible without the emergence of bioinformatics and computational chemistry and the opportunities they provide for transforming data into information. In specific, computational toxicology would produce risk assessments on basis of specific molecular changes rather than just the number of tumors, deaths, and over the clinical changes are noticed in test animals.
Pollution of Aquatic systems (For Example: lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater) by large amounts of waste material that modify the water in negative fashion is termed as Aquatic Pollution. This type of ecological poverty occurs when harmful pollutants are into aquatic systems discharged either directly or indirectly without removal of harmful compounds. Aquatic pollution rightly leads to suffering of organisms and vegetation that survive in water ,as well as amphibians. The initial source of Aquatic pollution mainly consists of Industrial waste, Mining activities, Sewage and waste water, Marine dumping, Burning of fossil fuels, Accidental Oil leakage, Global warming, Atmospheric deposition, Urban development etc.
Toxic dynamics, termed pharmacodynamics in pharmacology, describes the dynamic interactions of a toxicant with a biological target and its biological effects A biological target, also known as the site of action, can be necessary proteins, ion channels, DNA, or a variety of other receptors. When a toxicant go in for an organism, it can linkup with these receptors and produce structural or functional alterations. The appliance of action of the toxicant, asset on by a toxicant’s chemical properties, will determine what receptors are targeted and the overall toxic effect at the cellular level and organismal level. Toxicants have been bought together as stated to their chemical properties by way of quantitative structure- activity relationships (QSARs), which allows prediction of toxic action based on these properties. Endocrine interrupt chemicals (EDCs) and carcinogens are examples of classes of toxicants that can act as QSARs. EDCs mimic or stop correspondence activation normally caused by natural steroid hormones.
Animal testing for toxicity is a portion of the non-clinical laboratory for testing about the drugs. It is the perfect method to successfully predict the toxic effects of drugs on human beings. Many alternatives have evolved for animal testing now. To one side from animal testing also includes Emerging in vitro models: These are based on human cell and tissue cultures computerized patient-drug databases and virtual drug trials computer models and simulations methods like stem cell and genetic testing methods non-invasive imaging techniques such as MRIs and CT Scans micro dosing-a technique in which humans are given very low quantities of a drug to test the effects in cellular level on the body without affecting the whole-body system). with in the living imaging is a process in which living animals are visualized. This technique is mainly intended for drug development. With in the living imaging helps in observing differs in the biological systems at different levels of organization.
Biodegradation is the failure of organic matter by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. The process of biodegradation can be divided into three stages: bio deterioration, bio fragmentation, and assimilation. Bio deterioration is sometimes described as a surface-level degradation that modifies the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of the material. This stage occurs whenever the material is revealed to abiotic factors in the outdoor environment and allows for further degradation by making the material's structure weak. Some abiotic element that influence these initial changes are compression i.e. ,mechanical, light, temperature and chemicals in the environment.
Industrial toxicology is the study of dangerous effects of chemicals used in the workplace, the products produced by companies, and the wastes created during manufacturing on human beings and other living beings. Industries such as the pharmaceutical and pesticide industries should conduct many studies and experiments to demonstrate the safety of the chemicals and wastes they develop. Few effects of industrial Toxicology include product development toxicology biochemical and molecular toxicology, chemical toxicology, heavy metals toxicity and acute zinc and iron toxicity.
- Heavy metal Toxicity
- Trace element toxicity
- Product development toxicology
- Invitro toxicity testing
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Seeking Environmental Protection .All pesticides should be reviewed before the products are registered for sale to ensure that the benefits will outweigh the risks. Seeking for the products that will have lack of an impact on the environment. Initially the protection comes from us to avoid harm because we are the main source of all the toxins. Can even be necessary to observe the physiological and biochemical responses of organisms following exposure to a pollutant, which may reflect a toxic effect.
- Protecting birds, animals, and rare plants.
- Proper waste disposal.
- Ecotoxicology and policy must be consolidated if the environment is to be safeguarded.
An ecological risk assessment is the process for evaluating how likely it is that the environment may be influenced as a result of revelation to one or more environmental stressors like chemicals, land change, disease, invasive species and climate change. Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) aims to evaluate the effects of stressors, generally chemicals, on the specific environment. A risk is an integrated evaluation of likelihood and severity of an unsought event. In ERA, the unsought event often depends on the chemical of interest and on the risk assessment scenario.